Perhaps the most widely recognized form of dog communication is tail movement. In addition to the joyful wagging tail, a dog’s tail can communicate a range of other emotions. For example, a slow wagging means your dog is feeling cautious, and a stiff tail held high means your dog is on alert. A low tail means your pup is feeling content, but a tucked tail means he is feeling scared. If your dog is wagging his tail vigorously enough to make his butt to wiggle (we all know what I’m talking about), he’s elated to see you!
Tongue strokes are often motivated by anxiety and a desire to soothe the owner or avoid conflict, but they do not mean that your dog knows that he has been “naughty” and that he is sorry. Dogs can certainly read our body language and can worry or worry if we seem upset, but it’s not the same as feeling guilty or understanding that they’ve done something wrong.